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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.17
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
to spondylitic spondylitis to
spasmophilia (spaz-mo-fil'e-a) [" + philein, to love]. A
tendency to tetany and convulsions; almost always associated with
spastic (spas'tik) [Gr. spastikos, convulsive]. 1.
Resembling or of the nature of spasms or convulsions. 2. Produced by
spasms. 3. One afflicted with spasms.
spastic gait. A stiff movement with toes seeming to catch
together and to drag.
spastic hemiplegia. Partial hemiplegia with spasmodic
spasticity (spas-tis'i-te). Increased tone or
contractions of muscles causing stiff and awkward movements: the result
of upper motor neuron lesion.
spastic paralysis. Muscular rigidity accompanying partial
paralysis. Usually due to a lesion involving upper motor neurons.
spastic paraplegia. Paraplegia due to transverse lesions
of the cord or sclerosis.
spinal canal. Canal of the vertebral column that
contains the spinal cord.
spinal column. The vertebral column enclosing the spinal
cord and consisting of 33 vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 dorsal or thoracic,
5 lumbar, 5 sacral fused to form 1 bone, and 4 in the coccyx fused to
form 1 bone. The number is sometimes increased by an additional vertebra
in one region, and sometimes one may be absent in another.
spinal cord. An ovoid column of nervous tissue averaging
about 44 cm in length, flattened anteroposteriorly, extending from the
medulla to the 2nd lumbar vertebra in the spinal canal. All nerves to
the trunk and limbs are issued from the spinal cord, and it is the
center of reflex action containing the conducting paths to and from the
brain. In cross section, it does not fill the vertebral space, being
surrounded by the pia mater, the cerebrospinal fluid, the arachnoid, and
the dura mater, which fuses with the periosteum of the inner surfaces of
The gray substance approximates the shape of an "H," there being a
posterior and anterior horn in either half. The anterior horn is
composed of motor cells from which the fibers making up the motor
portions of the peripheral nerves arise. Sensory neurons enter
posteriorly. The "H" also divides the surrounding white matter into
posterior, lateral, and anterior bundles. These serve to connect brain
and cord in both directions (i.e., with efferent and afferent nerves) as
well as various portions of the cord itself.
ormal curvature of the spine,
frequently constitutional in children. It may be angular, lateral
(scoliosis), or anteroposterior (kyphosis, q.v., lordosis, ).
spinal curvature, angular. Caries of the spine. SYN:
spinal curvature. Abn
spinal curvature, lateral. Deviation of spine to one side
or the other causing a twist of the spine.
spinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid. When normal, it
contains 50 to 75 mg of sugar per 100 ml. The sugar content is lower
than that in the blood.
spinal fusion Surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae.
This procedure may be done for several conditions including herniated
spinal ganglion. Enlargement on dorsal or posterior root
of a spinal nerve composed principally of cell bodies of somatic and
visceral afferent neurons. Also called dorsal root ganglion.
spinal nerves. Nerves arising from the spinal cord: 31
pairs, consisting of 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1
coccygeal, corresponding with the spinal vertebrae. Each spinal nerve is
attached to the spinal cord by two roots: a dorsal or posterior sensory
root and a ventral or anterior root. The former consists of afferent
fibers conveying impulses to the cord; the latter of efferent fibers
conveying impulses from the cord. A typical spinal nerve, on passing
through the intervertebral foramen, divides into four branches, a
recurrent branch, a dorsal ramus or posterior primary division, a
ventral ramus or anterior primary division, and two rami communicantes
(white and gray), which pass to ganglia of the sympathethic trunk.
spinal puncture. Puncture of the spinal cavity with a
needle to extract the spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, to introduce
anaesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or to remove fluid so other
fluids such as radiopaque substances may be injected.
spinal reflex. Any reflex centering in the spinal cord.
spinal shock. Effects resulting from transverse section
of the spinal cord and occurring in segments below level of section.
Principal effects are anesthesia, paralysis, loss of muscle tone, and
suppression of reflexes, both visceral and somatic.
spinalgia (spi-nal'je-a) [L. spina, thorn, + Gr. algos,
pain]. Pain in a vertebra under pressure.
spinalis (spi-na'lis) [L.]. A muscle attached to the
spinal process of a vertebra.
spine (spin). 1. A sharp process of bone. 2. The spinal
column, consisting of 33 vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5
sacral, 4 coccygeal. The bones of the sacrum and coccyx are ankylosed in
adult life and counted as one each. SYN: backbone. RS:
cephalorhachidian; cord, spinal; spine, suprameatal, cramp; curvature;
rachialgia; rachilysis, "rach-" words; scoliosis.
s., alar. Spinous process of the sphenoid bone.
s., anterior nasal. Projection formed by anterior
prolongation of the inferior border of the nasal notch of the maxilla.
s., bifid. Spina bifida.
s., fracture of. A fractured spine often is treated in a
plaster jacket with the spine hyperextended to reduce the fracture after
essential treatment with skeletal traction. A window is cut over the
abdomen. If the fracture is high, the neck is included. The jacket must
be short enough to allow flexion of the thighs. The patient is allowed
to walk in the jacket, which is left on for 3 or 4 months. A vest is put
on under this plaster, and the prominences are padded with felt.
Traction, Balkan, and Stryker frames are used if the fracture involves
the cord with paralysis below the injury. Bedsores and cystitis must be
prevented. An enema is given when needed.
s., frontal, Sharp-pointed medial process extending
downward from nasal process of frontal bone. SYN: s., nasal.
s., hemal That part of the hemal arch of a typical
vertebra that closes it in.
s., Henle"s. S., suprameatal.
s., iliac. One of four spines of the ilium, namely the
anterior and posterior inferior spines and the anterior and posterior
s., ischial Spine of the ischium, a pointed eminence on
its posterior border. SYN: s., sciatic.
s., mental. Small process on the inner surface of
mandible at back of the symphysis formed of one or more small
projections (genial tubercles).
s., nasal. Sharp process descending in the middle line
from the inferior surface of the frontal bone between the superior
s., neural. Spinous process of a vertebra. The posterior
projection of the neural arch.
s. of pubis. A prominent tubercle on upper border of the
s. of scapula. An osseous plate projecting from the
posterior surface of the scapula.
s. of sphenoid. Spinous process of the greater sphenoid
s., pharyngeal. Ridge under the basilar process of the
s., posterior nasal. Spine formed by medial ends of the
horizontal processes of the palatine bones.
s., sciatic. S., ischial.
s., suprameatal. A small spine at junction of superior
and posterior walls of the external auditory meatus. SYN: s., Henle's.
s., typhoid. Acute arthritis due to infection causing
spinal ankylosis during or following typhoid fever.
spinobulbar (spi-no-bul-bar) [ + Gr. bulbos, a bulb].
Concerning the spinal cord and medulla oblongata.
(spi-no-sel-u-lar) [ + cellula, little cell]. Pert. to or like prickle
spinocerebellar (spi"no-ser-e-bel'ar) [" + cerebellum, little
brain]. Concerning the spinal cord and cerebellum.
[" + cortex, rind]. Pert. to the spinal cord and cerebral cortex. SYN:
spinocostalis (spi"no-kos-ta'lis) [" + costa, rib]. The
combination of the superior and inferior serratus muscles. splnoglenoid
(spi'no-glen'oyd) [" + Gr. glene, socket, + eidos, form, shape]. Rel. to
the spine of the scapula and the glenoid cavity.
Ligament joining the spine of the scapula to the border of the glenoid
spinose (spi'nos) [L.
spina, thorn]. Spinous. spinotectal (spi"no-tek'tal) [" + tectum, roof].
Pert. to the spinal cord and the tectum, the dorsal portion (corpora
quadrigemina) of the midbrain.
Spinous (spi'nus) [L.
spina, thorn]. Pert. to or resembling a spine. spinous point. Spot over
a spinous process very sensitive to pressure. spinous process.
Prominence at posterior part of each vertebra.
splint (splint) [MD.
splinte, a wedge]. An appliance made of bone, wood, metal, or plaster of
paris, used for the fixation, union, or protection of an injured part of
the body. It may be movable or immovable.
s., Agnew's. Splint
used in fractures of the patella and metacarpus. s., airplane. An
appliance usually used on ambulatory patients in the treatment of
fractures of the humerus. It takes its name from the elevated (abducted)
position in which it holds the arm suspended away from the body. s., Ashhurst's. A bracketed splint of
wire with a footpiece to cover the thigh and leg after excision of the
s., Balkan. Splint used
for continuous extension in fracture of the femur. s., banjo traction.
Splint made out of a steel rod bent to resemble the shape of a banjo.
Used for the treatment of contractures and fractures of the fingers.
s., Bavarian. An
immovable dressing in which the plaster is applied between two layers of
flannel. s., blow-up. Tubular material that fits around the injured
extremity. It contains compartments that can be inflated. These
immobilize the injured part when filled with air.
s., Bond's. Splint used
for fracture of the lower end of the radius. s., Bowlby's. Splint used
for fracture of the shaft of the humerus.
s., bracketed. Splint
composed of two pieces of metal or wood united by brackets.
S., Cabot's. Splint
composed of a metal structure placed posterior to the thigh and leg,
s., coaptation. Small splint adjusted about a fractured part to
prevent overriding of the fragments of bones. Usually covered by a
longer splint for fixation of entire section.
s., Denis Browne.
Splint used to treat talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) and consisting of a
curved bar attached to the soles of a pair of high-topped shoes. Often
used in late infancy and applied at bedtime. Generally employed
following casting and manipulation which have reduced the deformity.
s., Dupuytren's. Splint
used to prevent eversion in Pott's fracture, q.v.
S., dynamic. Splint
that assists in movements initiated by the patient.
s., Fox's. Splint used
for fractured clavicle.
s., functional. S., dynamic.
s., Gibson walking.
Splint that is a modification of Thomas splint.
s., Gordon's. A side splint used for the arm and hand in Colles'
Inflatable device for immobilizing part or all of an extremity. The
hollow tubular device is placed around the part and then inflated. ., s.,McIntire's. Splint shaped like a
double inclined plane, used as a posterior splint for leg and thigh.
s., Sayre's. One of
three varieties of splint: ankle, knee, and hip joint disease.
s., Stromeyer's. Splint
with two hinged sections that can be set at any angle, used esp. for the
s., Thomas. A long wire
splint with a proximal ring. The ring fits over the lower extremity and
is placed as fqr as it will go toward the hip. Used in emergency
treatment of femoral fracture.
s., Thomas' knee. A
rigid metal used to remove pressure of body weight from a weak knee
joint by transferring weight to the ischium and perineum.
s., Volkmann's. Splint
used for fracture of lower extremity, consisting of a footpiece and two
spondyl- (spon'dil) [Gr.
spondylos, vertebra ] . Combining form for vertebra. spondylalgia
(spon"dil-al'je-a) [" + algv pain]. Painful condition of a vertebra.
[" - arthron, joint, + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of a vertebra;
arthritis of the spine.
(spon"dil-ar-throk'ase) [" + " + hake, badness]. Tuberculous condition
of the vertebrae.
(spon"dil-eks"arthro'sis) [" + exarthrosis, dislocation] Dislocation of
(spon"di-lit'ik) ["` + itis, inflammation]. 1. A person with
spondylitis. 2, Concerning spondylitis.