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the kneelsit ergonomic chair GLOSSARY Pg.2

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems.

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica

C -D

cartilage (karti-lij) [L. cartilago, gristle]. A specialized type of dense connective tissue consisting of cells embedded in a ground substance or matrix. The matrix is firm and compact, rendering it capable of withstanding considerable pressure or tension. Cartilage has a bluish-white or gray color and is semi-opaque; it has no nerve or blood supply of its own. The cells lie in cavities called lacunae. They may be single or in groups of two, three, or four.
Cartilage constitutes a part of the skeleton in adults, occurring in the costal cartilages of the ribs, the nasal septum, in the external ear and lining the eustachian tube, in the wall of the larynx, in the trachea and bronchi, between bodies of the vertebrae, and covering the articular surfaces of bones. It forms the major portion of the embryonic skeleton, providing a model in which most bones develop.
c., articular. Hyaline cartilage covering the articular surfaces of bones.
c., costal. Cartilage connecting the true ribs and the sternum.
c., fibrous. Cartilage containing visible collagenic fibers. SYN: fibrocartilage.
c., semilunar. One of the interarticular cartilages of the knee joint.

central nervous system. ABBR: CNS. Brain and spinal cord, with their nerves and end organs that control voluntary and involuntary acts. Includes parts of the brain governing consciousness and mental activities; parts of brain, spinal cord, and their sensory and motor nerve fibers controlling skeletal muscles; and end organs of the body wall. COMP: Nerve tissue that forms the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves from both. Tissue is made up of gray and white matter. Gray matter is composed of cells of nervous tissue, while the white matter is composed of nerve fibers from the cells. White matter in the brain and cord carries messages or impulses from the body or outside world to the cells or gray matter.

cerebellum (ser-e-be1um)   A portion of the brain forming the largest portion of the rhombencephalon. It lies dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata, overhanging the latter. It consists of two lateral cerebellar hemispheres and a narrow medial portion, the vermis. It is connected to the brain stem by three pair of fiber bundles, the inferior, middle, and superior peduncles. The cerebellum is involved in synergic control of skeletal muscles and plays an important role in the coordination of voluntary muscu.lar movements. It receives afferent impulses and discharges efferent impulses but does not serve as a reflex center in the usual sense; however, it may reinforce some reflexes and inhibit others. Even though the cerebellum does not initiate movements, it interrelates with many brainstem structures in executing a variety of movements, including maintaining proper posture and balance; walking; running; fine voluntary movements as required in writing, dressing, eating, and playing musical instruments; and smooth tracking movements of the eyes. The cerebellum controls the property of movements, such as speed, acceleration, and trajectory.

cerebrospinal fluid. A water cushion protecting the brain and spinal cord from physical impact, Usually shrinking or expanding of the cranial contents is balanced quickly by increase or decrease in the amount of fluid. FORMATION: The fluid is formed by the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricles, that of the lateral ventricles passing through the foramen of Monro to the third ventricle, and through the aqueduct of SyIvius to the fourth ventricle. Here it may escape through the central foramen of Magendie, or the lateral foramen Luschke into the cisterna magna, and so over the brain and cord surfaces, occupying the subarachnoid spaces. It is absorbed by the arachnoid villi and through the peripheral lymph spaces of both brain and cord.
CHARACTERISTICS: The fluid is watery, clear, and colorless. Normally the initial pressure of spinal fluid in a recumbent adult, as determined by spinal puncture, is equivalent to 70 to 180 ml of water. Amount in normal adult is 100 to 140 ml. Sp.gr.:1.003 to 1.008. Total cell count in adults is 0 to 10/ml; in children 0 to 20/ml. (cells should be counted at once); total protein 20 to 45mg/dl; and glucose 0 to 75 mg/dl. Its concentration and alkaline reserve are similar to those of the blood. It does not clot on standing. Although the choroid plexuses can reflect certain blood constituents (eg: iodides), changes in blood sugar, chloride or urea will manifest themselves quickly in the fluid as well. Otherwise, changes take place largely subsequent to secretion. Turbidity suggests an excessive cell count. If due to red blood cells, centrifugation will show a red deposit.
Formation of a web after a clear fluid been allowed to stand is characteristic of tuberculous meningitis (rarely other inflammatory reactions). Cerebrospinal fluid usually shows a yellowish discoloration when containing blood from the subarachnoid spaces (in contrast to blood from trauma of puncture), although for a few days the cells may not be entirely disintegrated. A similar appearance may result from a spinal block above the point of puncture, the fluid spontaneously coagulating due to an excessive albumin content. Total protein is increased in infections (as meningitis, brain abscess, tabes dorsalis), various types of hemorrhage or thrombosis, virus diseases (as encephalitis, anterior poliomyelitis, lymphocytic meningitis), and conditions such as chronic alcoholism. Cell count increases esp. in tu.berculous meningitis, epidemic encephali.tis, lymphocytic: choriomeningitis, poliomyelitis (several days after onset), syphilis of central nervous system, and certain types of tumors of the spinal cord or brain. SEE: lumbar puncture.

cerebrum (ser e-brum,) [L.]. The largest part of the brain, consisting of two hemispheres separated by a deep longitudinal fissure. The hemispheres are united by three commissures - the corpus callosum and the anterior and posterior hippocampal commissures. The surface of each hemisphere is thrown into numerous folds or convolutions called gyri separated by furrows called fissures or sulci.
PHYS: The cerebrum is concerned with sensations or the interpretation of sensory impulses; and all voluntary muscular activities. It is the seat of consciousness and the center of the higher mental faculties such as memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, intelligence, and the emotions.
On the basis of function, several areas have been identified and located. Among them are motor projection areas, which give rise to fibers carrying efferent impulses to effector organs, the skeletal muscles; sensory projection areas, which receive impulses from sense organs or sensory receptors by way of the brain stem, including the somesthetic (visual, auditory, gustatory, and olfactory) areas; and association areas, which are concerned with the higher mental faculties.

Charcot's joint (shar-koz'). [Jean M. Charcot, Fr. neurologist, 1825-18931 A type of diseased joint associated with tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia, or other conditions involving disease or injury to the spinal cord, characterized by hypermobility. Decalcification of bone on joint surfaces occurs accompanied by overgrowth of bone about margins. Pain is usually absent although there are exceptions. Deformity and instability of the joint are characteristic.

chondral (kon'dral) [Gr. chondros, cartilage]. Pert. to cartilage.

chondralgia (kon-dral-je-a) [" + algos, pain]. Pain in or around a cartilage.

chondric (kon'drik) [Gr. chondros, cartilage]. Pert. to cartilage.

chondrification (kon-dri-fi-ka'shun) [" + L. facere, to make]. Conversion into cartilage.

chondritis (kon-dri-tis) [" + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of cartilage. 

chondrocalcinosis (kon"dro-kal"sin-o-sis) [" + L. calx, lime, + Gr. osis, condition]. Pseudogout; chronic recurrent arthritis clinically similar to gout. The crystals found in synovial fluid are calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and not urate crystals. The most commonly involved joint is the knee.

chondrocyte (kon'dro-sit) [" + kytos, cell]. A specialised cartilage cell which relies on movement and differences in electrical potential to receive nourishment.

chondrodynia- (kon"dro-din-e-a) [ + odyne, pain]. Pain in or about a cartilage

Chondr-osteodystrophy (kon-dro-os-teo-dis-tro-fe) [" + osteon, bone, + dys, bad, + trophe, nourishment]. Developmental deformity of the epiphyses. This produces dwarfism, kyphosis, and pigeon breast.

chondroplast (kon-dro-plast). A cell that forms cartilage. SYN: chondroblast.

circulation [L. circulatio.] Movement in a regular or circular course.
Blood. Circulation in which the blood leaving the left ventricle enters the aorta, from which it is pumped into the various large arteries. It thus reaches the coronary arteries of the heart itself and the arteries of the head, body wall, abdominal viscera, and extremities. Passing through the various capillary systems, it is gathered into veins, of which there are two collecting systems. (1) Most veins empty their blood into the superior and inferior venae cavae. (2) Veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen, and intestine unite to form the portal vein, which runs to the liver. In the latter, it breaks up into a new capillary system, which drains through the hepatic veins into the vena cava inferior. The combined blood of the venae cavae and the coronary veins enters the right atrium, passes through the right ventricle, and is forced out into the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary capillary system drains by way of the pulmonary veins into the left atrium and thence into the left ventricle.

Lymph is formed from the tissue fluid that fills the tissue spaces of the body. It is collected into lymph capillaries, which carry the lymph to the larger lymph vesseIs, These converge to form one of two main trunks, the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. The right lymphatic duct drains the right side of the head, neck, and trunk and right upper extremity; the thoracic duct drains all the remaining portion of the body. It has its origin at the cisterna chyli, which receives the lymphatics from the abdominal organs. It courses upward through the diaphragm and thorax and empties into the left subclavian artery near its junction with the left interior jugular vein. The right lymphatic duct empties into the right subclavian vein. Along the course of lymph vessels there are lymph nodes which function as filtering structures. They filter out bacteria and particulate substances, thus preventing their entrance into the bloodstream. Lymph flow is maintained by difference in pressure at the two ends of the system. Important accessory factors aiding the flow of lymph are breathing movements and muscular activities.

cramp [ME. crampe]. A spasmodic, esp. a tonic, contraction of one or many muscles, usually painful. In certain occupations, the attempted use of muscle groups habitually employed may lead to a so-called professional cramp, though other motor formulae are easily executed by the affected muscles. In writer's cramp, the attempt to write induces painful spasms of the hand muscles (similarly telegrapher's, watchmaker's, or seamstress cramp). SEE: heat cramps; systremma; writer's cramp. SYM: Excruciating pain, hard and contracted lumps of muscle. TREAT: Depends upon cause and location. In muscular cramps try to extend muscle, compress it, and apply heat and massage.


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dermatomyositis (der-ma-to-mi-o-si-tis) [+ itis, inflammation]. A disease of connective tissue. An acute, subacute, or chronic disease of unknown etiology. Characterized by edema, dermatitis, and inflamation of the muscles. SYM: Fever, malaise, general weakness, weakness of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles; skin and mucosal lesions often present. About one-third of patients will have dysphagia. TREAT: Symptomatic: bedrest, physiotherapy, salicylates. Adrenocortical steroids are helpful in most cases. NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Assess level of discomfort, muscle weakness, and range of motion on a daily basis. Careful turning is needed along with frequent position changes. Maintenance of correct body alignment, massage, graduated execises and resistance exercises are beneficial in preventing or treating muscle atrophy and contractures. Warm baths and moist heat applications are helpful in relief of stiffness. Mouth lesions may be irrigated with warm saline solution as needed. Encourage self-help activities to maintain patient independence. Assist patient to avoid scratching. Apply tepid sponge or compresses as needed. Teach patient and family about disease procedures and possible therapeutic, undesired effects to corticosteroids. Encourage patient to express fears and concerns; provide realistic support and encouragement.

diaphragm (di-a-fram) [Gr. diaphragma, a partition]. Its origin is at a level with the 6th ribs or intercostal spaces anteriorly and the 1lth or 12th ribs posteriorly. The right half rises higher than the left. The lower surface is in relation to the suprarenal bodies of the kidney, liver, spleen, and cardiac end of the stomach. It aids in defecation and parturition by its ability to cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure while the person attempts to exhale with the glottis closed. It becomes spasmodic in hiccoughs and sneezing. SEE: illus.; Boerhaave syndrome, phrenic; "phren- " words; Valsalva's maneuver.

disc [Gr. diskos, quoit]. A flat, round, platelike structure. SEE: disk.

discitis (dis-k-itis) [Gr. diskos, quoit, + itis, inflammation]. Diskitis.

discogenic(dis-ko-jenik) [ + gennanto produce]. Caused by an intervertebral disk.

discography (dis-kogra-fe). Use of a contrast medium injected irto the intervertebral disk in order to examine it by x-ray.

disdiadochokinesia, (dis-dia-doko-ki-neze-a) [L. dis, apart, ' + Gr. diadochos, succeeding, + kinesis, movement]. Inability to make finely coordinated movements of a part in opposite directions, as when quickly supinating and pronating the hand

disk [Gr.diskos, a disk]. A flat, round, platelike structure.
d, anisotropic. A dark, shining, highly refractile disk forming a part of the striation of the myofibril of a striated muscle fiber.
d., articular. The biconcave oval disk of fibrous conneciive tissue that separates the two joint cavities of the temporomandibular joint on each side.
d., Bowman's. Disklike segment of a striated muscle fiber.
d., apiphyseal., Disklike epiphysis at ends of vertebral centrum.
d, intervertebral. The fibrocartilaginous tissue between the vertebral bodies.
d,  slipped. Lay term for herniated intervertebral disk.

diskectorny (dis-kekto-me). Surgical removal of a herniated intervertebral disk.

diskitis (disk-itis) [Gr. diskos, disk, + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of a disk, esp. an interarticular cartilage. SYN: meniscitis.

dislocation [L. dis, apart, + locare, to place]. The displacement of any part, esp. the temporary displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint.
d, closed
d., simple.
d, complete. Dislocation that completely separates the surfaces of a joint.
d, complicated Dislocation associated with other major injuries.
d., compound Dislocation in which the joint communicates with the external air.
d, congenital. Dislocation existing from or before birth.
d, consecutive. Dislocation in which the luxated bone has changed its position since its first displacement.
d, divergent. Dislocation in which the ulna and radius are dislocated separately.
d, habitual. Dislocation that often recurs after replacement.
d, incomplete. A subluxation; a slight displacement.
d, metacarpophalangeal joint. Dislocation of finger. It is usually complicated by an interposition of tendons or other structures. When reduced, it tends to slip out immediately. In many instances, manipulating of this region only tends to make it more difficult for a subsequent reduction; therefore, immobilize the disturbed area with well-placed and padded splints of hand and wrist. Send patient to physician promptly.
d., Monteggia's. Dislocation of hipjoint in which head of femur is near anterosuperior spine of the ilium.
d, Nelaton's. Dislocation of the ankle in which the talus is forced up between the end of the tibia and the fibula.
d, old. Dislocation in which no reduction has been accomplished even after many days, weeks, or months.
d., partial. D., incomplete.
d., pathologic. Dislocation resulting from paralysis or disease of joint or supporting tissues.
d., primitive. Dislocation in which the bones remain as originally displaced.
d., recent. Dislocation seen shortly after it occurred.
d, simple. Dislocation in which the joint is not penetrated by a wound.
d., slipped. SEE: hemiated disk.
d., SubaStragalar. Separation of the calcaneum and the scaphoid from the talus.
d., traumatic. Dislocation due to injury or violence.

dorsalgia (dor-sal-je-ia) [" + Gr. algas, pain]. Pain in the back. SYN: notalgia; ra.chi*ia.

dorsal nerves. Branches of spinal nerves that pass dorsally to innervate structures or areas near the vertebral column. Also called dorsal rami.

Duchenne, Guillaume B. A. (du-shen). French neurologist, 1806 - 1875.
D.'s disease. Degeneration of the posterior roots and column of the spinal cord and of the brain stem. Characterized by attacks of pain, progressive ataxia, loss of reflexes, functional disorders of the bladder, larynx, and gastrointestinal system, and impotence. Develops in conjunction with syphilis and most frequently affects middle-aged males. SYN: tabes dorsalis.
D.'s muscular dystrophy. Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy characterized by weakness and pseudohypertrophy of the affected muscles. The disease begins in childhood, is progressive, and affects the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. The disease, mostly of males, is transmitted as a sex-linked recessive trait. Death usually occurs at an early age. SEE: Nursing Diagnoses in Appendix. D.'s paralysis. Bulbar paralysis.

Duchenne-Aran disease (du-shen-ar-an'). [Duchenne; F.A. Aran, Fr. physician, 1817 -1861] Progessive spinal muscular atrophy,
characterised by chronic progressive wasting of muscles with subsequent weakness and paralysis. The upper extremity is most commonly involved. Caused by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Occasionally the bulbar nuclei of the brain are involved. A variety of conditions may lead to the development of this disease.. infections, avitaminosis, or toxins.

dystrophy (dis-tro-fe). Disorder caused by defective nutrition or metabolism. SYN: dystrophia.
d., adiposogenital. A condition characterized by a peculiar type of obesity and bypogenitalism due to a disturbance in the bypothalamus, which controls food intake, and of the pituitary, which controls gonadal development. SYN: Frohlich's syndrome.
d., Landouzy-Ddjdrine. A hereditary form of Progressive muscular dystrophy with onset in childhood or adolescence. Characterized by atrophic changes in muscles of shoulder girdle and face, inability to raise arms above the head, myopathic facies, eyelids that remain partly open in sleep, and inability to whistle or purse lips. SYN: atrophy, Landouzy-Dejerine.
d., Progressive muscular. A familial disease characterized by progressive atrophy and wasting of muscles. Onset is usually at an early age, and it occurs more frequently in males than females. Its cause is thought to be a genetic defect in muscle metabolism.
d., pseudohypertrophic muscular. A hereditary disease usually beginning in childhood in which muscular ability is lost. At first there is muscular pseudohypertrophy followed by atrophy.