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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.23
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
ulnar (ul'nar) [L, ulna, elbow]. 1. Rel. to ulna, or to
nerve or artery named from it. 2. Cuneiform carpal bone.
ulnar drift. A joint change at the metacaphalangeal joints
frequently seen in rheumatoid arthritis, resulting from chronic
synovitis. In this condition, the long axis of the fingers make an angle
with the long axis of the wrist.
ulnaris (ul-na'ris).1. Ulnar. 2. Concerning the ulna.
ulnocarpal (ul"no-kar'pal) [" + karpos, wrist]. Relating
to the carpus and ulna, or to the ulnar side of the wrist.
ulnoradial (ul"no-ra'd-al) [" + radius, spoke of a
wheel]. Rel. to the ulna and radius, as their ligaments and
Concerning the uncus of the brain.
[L. uncus, hook, + forma, shape]. Hook-shaped.
Hook-shaped bone on ulnar side of distal row of the carpus. SYN: os
Bundle of fibers connecting frontal cerebral lobes with the
unciform process. 1.
Long thin lamina of bone from orbital plate of the ethmoid articulating
with the inferior turbinate. 2. Hook at anterior end of the hippocampal
gyrus. 3. Hooked end of unciform bone.
uncinate bundle of Russell. [J. S. R. Russell, Brit. physician,
1863-1939] Fibers that arise in the fastigial superior cerebellar
peduncle and pass inferiorly to the vestibular nuclei and reticular
formation by which impulses are carried to muscles, esp. those of the
neck and body.
Form of epilepsy occurring in disease of uncinate area of the temporal
uncinate fasciculus. Bundle of fibers connecting orbital gyri of
frontal lobe with rostral portion of temporal lobe. They curve sharply
as they pass over lateral fissure of cerebrum.
[" + striatus, striped]. Unstriped, as smooth muscle fiber.
[L. utriculus, a little bag]. 1. One of two sacs of the membranous
labyrinth in the bony vestibule of the inner ear. It communicates with
the semicircular ducts by five openings on posterior wall and with the
sacculus and endolymphatic duct by an opening on anterior wall. On its
inner surface is an area of sensory epithelium, the macula utriculi,
containing cells that respond to movement of otoliths due to changes in
position. 2. Any small sac.
u. of vestibule.
Vestibular cavity connecting with the semicircular canals.
utricular (u-trik'u-lar) [L. utriculus, a little bag]. 1. Pert.
to the utricle. 2. Like a bladder.
[" + Gr. itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the utricle, either that
of the vestibule or the prostatic utricle.
Pert. To the utrical and saccul of the labyrinth.
Duct uniting the utricle and saccule.
tis) [" + Gr. phleps, vein, +
itis, inflammation]. Phlebitis combined with varicose veins.
[L. varicosus, full of dilated veins]. Pert. to varices; distended,
swollen, knotted veins.
Ulcers that form as a result of varicose veins. When thrombophlebitis
develops in varicose veins, this leads to venous stasis and eventually
edema and ulcer formation.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Maintain patient on bedrest. Continuously apply
warm, moist compresses to relieve discomfort and infection. Use aseptic
technique when applying dressings and therapeutic agents.
Enlarged, twisted superficial veins. May occur in almost any part of the
body but are most commonly observed in the lower extremity and in the
SYM: Pain in feet and ankles, swelling, ulcers on skin. Severe bleeding
if a vein is injured.
ETIOL: Incompetent venous valves that may be acquired or congenital.
The development of varicose veins is promoted and aggravated by
pregnancy, obesity, and occupations that require prolonged standing.
Esophageal varices are caused by portal hypertension that accompanies
cirrhosis of the liver.
F.A.: In hemorrhage, elevation of extremity and gentle but firm
pressure over wound will stop bleeding. The use of a tourniquet is
undesirable. Sterile dressing should be held in place with a firm
bandage. Patient should not be permitted to walk for some time. The
Sengstaken-Blakemore tube may be used to control bleeding due to
hemorrhage from esophageal varices.
TREAT: In general, consists of rest, elevation of extremity, and use of
an external support. The use of elastic stockings is much preferred to
elastic bandages. Unna's paste boots recommended for elderly or
debilitated persons. Injection of sclerosing solutions may be utilized
for small varicosities. High ligation and removal of vein by stripping
may be necessary for major varicosities.
(var"i-ko'sis) [L.]. Varicose condition of veins.
varicosity (var"i-kos'i-te) [L. uarix, twisted vein]. 1.
Condition of being varicose. 2. A swollen, twisted vein. SYN: varix.
varicotomy (var"i-kot'o-me) [" + Gr. tome, incision]. Excision of
a varicose vein.
vertebra (ver'te-bra) [L.]. (pl. vertebrae) [NA] Any one of the
33 bony segments of the spinal column. The spinal vertebrae contain 7
cervical, 12 thoracic (dorsal), 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal
vertebrae. In adults, the five sacral vertebrae fuse to form a single
bone, the sacrum, and the four rudimentary coccygeal vertebrae fuse to
form the coccyx.
A typical vertebra consists of a ventral body and a dorsal or neural
arch. In the thoracic region the body bears on each side two costal pits
for reception of the head of the rib. The arch that encloses the
vertebral foramen is formed of two roots or pedicles and two laminae.
The arch bears seven processes: a dorsal spinous process, two lateral
transverse processes, and four articular processes (two superior and two
inferior). A deep concavity, inferior vertebral notch, on the inferior
border of the arch provides a passageway for a spinal nerve. The
successive vertebral foramina surround the spinal cord.
The bodies of successive vertebrae articulate with one another and are
separated by intervertebral disks, disks of fibrous cartilage enclosing
a central mass, the nucleus pulposus. The inferior articular processes
articulate with the superior articular processes of the next succeeding
vertebra in the caudal direction. Several ligaments (supraspinous,
interspinous, anterior and posterior longitudinal, and the ligamenta
flava) hold the vertebrae in position yet permit a limited degree of
v., basilar. The lowest
of the lumbar vertebrae.
v., cervical. The seven
vertebrae of the neck.
v., coccygeal. The
rudimentary vertebrae of the coccyx.
v. dentata. The second
cervical vertebra. SYN: axis [NA]; v., odontoid.
v., false. The sacral
and coccygeal vertebrae that fuse. SYN: v., fixed.
v., fixed. V., false.
v., flexion. All
vertebrae except the atlas and axis.
v., lumbar. The five
vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum.
v. magnum. The sacrum.
v., odontoid. V. dentata.
v. prominens. [NA] The
seventh cervical vertebra.
v., rotation. The first
two cervical vertebrae, the atlas and axis.
v., sacral. The five
fused vertebrae forming the sacrum.
v., stemal. The segments
of the sternum.
v., thoracic. The 12
vertebrae that connect the ribs and form part of the posterior wall of
v., true. The vertebrae
that remain unfused through life: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar.
vertebral (ver'te-bral) [L. vertebra, vertebra]. Pertaining to a
vertebra or the vertebral column.
vertebral arch. The thoracic portion of a vertebra that encloses
a vertebral foramen.
vertebral canal. Cavity of the spinal column that contains the
spinal cord. SYN: spinal canal.
vertebral column. Spinal column.
vertebral foramen. The hollow space enclosed by a vertebral arch.
vertebral groove. Groove lying on either side of the spinous
processes of the vertebrae.
vertebral notch. Notch
on inferior surface of vertebral arch for transmission of a spinal nerve.
vertebral ribs. The lower two, or floating, ribs.
vertebrarium (ver"te-bra're-(um) [L.]. The vertebral column.
vertebrata (ver"te-bra'ta). A subphylum of the phylum Chordata
characterized by posession of segmented backbone or spinal column. They
possess an axial notochord at some period of their existence. Includes
the following classes: Agnatha (cyclastomes); Chondrichthyes
(cartilaginous fishes); Osteichthyes (bony fishes); Amphibia; Reptilia;
Aves; and Mammalia.
vertebrectomy (ver"te-brek'to-me) [" +
Gr. ektome, excision]. Excision of a vertebra or part of one.
vertebroarterial (ver"te-bro-ar-te're-al) [" + Gr. arteria,
artery]. Concerning the vertebral artery.
(ver"te-bro-bas'i-lar) [" + basilaris, basilar].
Concerning the vertebral and basilar arteries.
(ver"t'e-bro-kon'dral) [" + Gr. chondros,
cartilage]. Denoting the vertebra and the costal cartilages.
vertebrocostal (ver"te-bro-kos'tal) [" + costa, rib]. Pert. to a
vertebra and a rib. SYN: costovertebral.
vertebrofemoral (ver"te-bra -fem'or-al) (" + femur, thigh].
Concerning the vertebrae and femur.
vertebroiliac (ver"te-bro-il'e-ak) [" + iliacus, pert. to ilium].
Concerning the vertebrae and ilium.
vertebromammary (ver"te-bro-mam'mare) [" + mamma, breast]. Pert.
to the vertebral and mammary areas.
vertebrosacral (ver"te-bro-sa'kral) [" + sacrum, sacred].
Concerning the vertebrae and sacrum.
vertebrosternal (ver"te-bro-ster'nal) [" + Gr. sternon, chest].
Pert. to a vertebra and the sternum.
vestibular nerve. A main division of the auditory nerve. Arises in the vestibular ganglion and is concerned with equilibrium.
vibration (vi-bra'shun).1. A to-and-fro movement. SYN:
oscillation. 2. Therapeutic shaking of the body, a form of massage.
Consists of a quick motion of the fingers or the hand vertical to the
body or use of a mechanical vibrator.
vibrator (vi'bra-tor) [L. vibrator, a shaker]. Device for causing
artificial vibration of body or its parts.
v., whole body. Exposure
of the entire body as would occur in occupations such as truck and
tractor driver, jackhammer operators, helicopter pilots, and
construction workers using various vibration-producing tools. There is
evidence that such exposure may produce diseases of the peripheral
nerves, prostatitis,and back disorders.
vibratory (vi bra-to"re)
[L. vibrator, a shaker]. Having a
vibrating or oscillatory movement.
vibratory sense. The ability to perceive vibrations transmitted
through the skin to deep tissues. Usually tested by placing a vibrating
tuning fork over bony prominences.
Villaret's syndrome (ve-lar-az'). [Maurice Villaret, Fr.
neurologist, 1877-1946] Ipsilateral paralysis of the ninth, tenth,
eleventh, twelfth, and sometimes the seventh cranial nerves and the
cervical sympathetic fibers. It is caused by a lesion in the posterior
retroparotid space. The signs and symptoms include paralysis and
anesthesia of the pharyngeal area with difficulty swallowing; loss of
taste sensation in the posterior third of the tongue; paralysis of the
vocal cords, sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles; and Horner's
volition (vo-lish'un) [L. volitio, will]. The act or power of
willing or choosing.
volitional (vo-lish'un-al). Performed by volition.
Volkmann's canals (folk'manz). [A. W. Volkmann, Ger.
physiologist, 1800-1877] Vascular channels in compact bone. They are not
surrounded by concentric lamellae as are the haversian canals.
Volkmann's contracture (folk'manz). [Richard von Volkmann, Ger.
surgeon, 1830-1899] Degeneration, contracture, fibrosis, and atrophy of
a muscle resulting from injury to its blood supply. Usually seen in the
hand. SYN: paralysis, ischemic.
voluntary muscle. Any muscle that is normally controlled by the
will. They are generally attached to the skeleton and are innervated by
myelinated nerves coming directly from the brain or spinal cord.
Microscopically they consist of long cylindrical fibers bearing
crosswise striations. The terms voluntary,striped, striated,
cross-striated, and skeletal are practically synonymous when applied to
(val'den-stremz). [Johann Henning Waldenstrom, Swedish surgeon, b. 1877]
Osteocbondritis deformans juvenilis.
walker. A mobile
device used to assist a person in walking. It consists of a stable
platform made of metal tubing that the patient grasps while taking a
step. The walker is then moved forward and another step is taken.
walking cast. A cast
that allows the patient to be ambulatory.
walking system. A
complex device that enables patients with spinal injuries resulting in
paralysis of the legs to walk. The device uses computer-controlled
electrical stimulation to muscles so that walking maybe accomplished.
Each of these devices is made especially for each patient; and their use
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (verd'nig-hof'man).
[Guido Werdnig, Austrian neurologist, 1844-1919; Johann Hoffmann, Ger.
neurologist, 1557-1919] A hereditary, progressive, infantile form of
muscular atrophy resulting from degeneration of anterior horn cells of
the spinal cord. Characterized by early onset, hypotonia and wasting of
muscles, complete flaccid paralysis, and death.
Werdnig-Hoffmann paralysis. Infantile muscular atrophy,
considered by some to be identical with amyotonia congenita.
wrist (rist) [AS]. The joint or region lying between the hand and
wrist bones. The carpus consisting of eight bones.
wrist drop. Condition in which hand is flexed at wrist and cannot
be extended; due to injury of radial nerve or paralysis of extensor
muscles of wrist and hand.
wrist unit. A component of an upper extremity prosthesis that
attaches the terminal device to the forearm section and provides for
pronation or supination.
writer's cramp. A
cramp affecting muscles of the thumb and two adjacent fingers after
wryneck (ri nek). Contracted state of one or more muscles of the
neck, producing an abnormal position of the head. Occasionally it is
acute, due to cold or trauma; more commonly it is chronic, spastic in
character, and dependent upon nerve irritation. Has been produced by
habitual malposition of the head assumed because of existing ocular
defect. May be congenital. When acute, it generally passes away under
influence of rest, heat, and time. Chronic wryneck may require surgical
therapy. SYN: loxia; torticollis.
(zif'i-ster'num) [Gr. xiphos, sword, + sternon,
chest]. The pointed process of the lower end of the sternum. SYN:
xiphocostal (zif"o-kos'tal) ["
+ L. costa, rib]. Rel. to the xiphoid cartilage and
xiphocostal ligament. Ligament connecting the xiphoid cartilage
to the cartilage of the 8th rib.
xiphodynia (zif"o-din'e-a) [" + odyne, pain]. Pain in the
xiphoid process. The lowest portion of the sternum; sword-shaped
cartilaginous process supported by bone. It has no ribs attached to it,
but some of the abdominal muscles are attached to it. It ossifies in the
xiphoiditis (zi;f"oyd-i'tis) ["
+ " + itis,
inflammation]. Inflammation of the ensiform or xiphoid cartilage.
Y Cartilage. The
cartilage that connects the pubis, ilium, and ischium and extends into
yin-yang. The Chinese symbol of opposing but complementary
entities or concepts such as light-dark; male-female; sun-moon. In
Chinese philosophy and medicine, the goal is to have a proper balance of
such biological forces. Applied to contemporary biology, this would
embody a feedback type of control of physiological phenomena.
yoga [Sanskrit, union]. A system of beliefs and practices, the
goal of which is to attain a union of the individual self with Supreme
Reality or the Universal Self. The term yoga, as used in the Western
world, has been associated almost exclusively with physical postures and
regulation of breathing. These are yoga exercises but not yoga in the
(za'glus). The part of the posterior sacroiliac ligament from the
posterosuperior spinous process of the ilium to the side of the sacrum.
Zang's space (zangz).
[Christoph B. Zang, Ger. surgeon, 1772-1835] Space between the two lower
tendons of the sternomastoid muscle in the supraclavicular fossa.
Z disk. A thin, dark disk that transversely crosses through and
bisects the clear zone of a striated muscle and bisects the clear zone
(isotropic disk) of a striated muscle fiber. The portion between two
disks constitutes a sarcomere. SYN: Krause's membrane.