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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.3

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica

E - F

Ear., middle. The tympanic cavity, an irregular air-filled space in the temporal bone. Anteriorly it communicates with the eustachian tube, which forms an open channel between the middle ear and the cavity of the nasopharynx. Posteriorly, the middle ear opens into the mastoid antrum and this in turn communicates with the mastoid cells. Of the three openings into the inner ear, two, the tympanic membrane and the round window, are covered. The third one is to the eustachian tube. Three ossicles (small bones) joined together extend from the tympanic membrane to the fenestra vestibuli; these are the malleus, incus, and stapes.
ear., nerve supply of. External branches of facial, vagus, and mandibular nerves and from cervical plexus. Middle: tympanic plexus and branches of mandibular, vagus, and facial nerves. Internal vestibulocochlear nerve.

ergonomics (er-go-nom-iks) [ + nomikos, law]. The science concerned with how to fit a job to man's anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics in a way that will enhance human efficiency and well-being.

exercise [L. exercitus, having drilled]. Performed activity of the muscles, voluntary or otherwise, esp. to maintain fitness.
e., active. Form of bodily movement that the patient performs by voluntary contraction and relaxation of muscles.
e., assistive. Form of bodily movement that the patient performs by voluntary contraction and relaxation of muscles with the aid of a therapist.
e., blowing. Exercise in which the patient blows into a tube connected to a bottle containing water. That bottle is attached to another bottle so that the air pressure produced forces water from the one into the other. This increases intrabronchial pressure, which tends to aid in expansion of the lung. It is by this means that obliteration of an empyema cavity is facilitated. SEE: empyema.
e., Buerger's postural. Exercise used for circulatory disturbances of the extremities.
e., Codman's. A type of gentle active motion of the upper extremity following immobilization with the purpose of re-establishing range of motion and function following fracture. SYN: Codman's movements.
e., corrective. Use of specific exercises to correct deficiencies caused by trauma or inactivity.
e., crawling. Exercise devised for treatment of scoliosis, q.v., essentially for children. SEE: patterning.
e., free. Bodily movement that is carried through by patient with no external assistance.
e., isokinetic. Contraction of a muscle during which the force exerted while the muscle shortens is maximal.
e., isometric. Active contraction where the force is exerted against stable resistance, so that muscle length is not shortened.
e., isotonic. Active muscle contraction where the force exerted remains constant and muscle length is decreased.
e. 's, Kegel. SEE: Kegel exercises.
e., muscle-setting. Contracting and relaxing a skeletal muscle or group of muscles without moving the part or changing the muscle length. SYN: e., static.
e., passive. Form of bodily movement that is carried through by the therapist without the assistance or resistance of the patient.
e., range of motion. Movements of joints through their full range of motion. Can be used to prevent loss of this ability or to regain the full range of motion after an injury or fracture.
e., resistive. Form of supervised bodily movement, with or without apparatus, that offers resistance to muscle action.
e., static. Alternate contraction and relaxation of a skeletal muscle or group of muscles without movement of the joint. SYN: e., muscle-setting.
e., therapeutic. Scientific supervision of bodily movement, with or without apparatus, for purpose of restoring normal function to diseased or injured tissues.

Extension. (eks-ten-shun) [L. extensio] The movement by which both ends of any part are pulled apart. 1. A movement that brings members of a limb into or toward a straight condition. Opposite of flexion. 2. The application of a pull (traction) to a fractured or dislocated limb. 3. To increase the angle between the bones forming a joint.
e., Buck's. A method of producing traction by applying adhesive tape or flannel-backed adhesive tape to the skin and keeping it in smooth close contact by means of circular bandaging of the part to which it is applied. The adhesive strips are placed along the long axis of the arm or leg, the superior ends being about 1 in. (2.5 cm) from the fractured site. Weights sufficient to produce the required extension are fastened to the inferior end of the adhesive strips by means of a rope that is run over a pulley to permit free motion.

F

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feedback. The return of some output to the place of origin by the system that receives it.

femur [L.]. (pl. thigh bone. It extends from the hip to the knee and is the longest and strongest bone in the skeleton. RS: calcar femorale., cavalry bone; femoral; trochanter.

fibroma (fi-bro-ma) [ + Gr. oma, tumor ]. (pl. fibromata) A fibrous, encapsulated, connective tissue tumor. It is irregular in shape, slow in growth, and has a firm consistency. Pressure or cystic degeneration may cause pain. May be found in the periosteum. May affect the jaws, the occiput, pelvis, vertebrae, ribs, long bones, and sternum.

fibromatosis (fi-bro-ma-to-sis) [L. fibra, fiber, + Gr. oma, tumor, + osis, condition]. The simultaneous development of many fibromas. SYN: fibrosis.
f. palmar. Dupuytren's contracture, q.v.

fibromatous (fi-bro-ma-tus). Pert. to, or of the nature of, a fibroma.

fibromectomy (fi-bro-mek-to-me) [ + Gr. oma, tumor, + ektome, excision]. Removal of a fibroid tumor.

fibromembranous (fi-bro-mem-bra-nus) [+ membrana, web]. Having both fibrous and membranous tissue.

fibromuscular (fi-bro-mus-ku-lar) [ + musculus, muscle]. Consisting of muscle and connective tissue.

fibromyalgia. Fibromyositis, q.v.

fibromyitis (fl-bro-mi-i-tis) [ + Gr. mys, muscle, + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the muscular system followed by fibrous degeneration of muscular fibers and atrophy.

fibromyoma (fi-bro-mi-o-ma) [+ + oma, tumor]. 1. Fibrous tissue myoma. 2. A fibroid tumor of the uterus that contains more fibrous than muscle tissue.

fibromyomectomy (fi-bro-mi-o-mek-to-me) [ + + ektome, excision]. Removal of a fibromyoma from the uterus, leaving that organ in place.

fibromyositis(fi-bro-mi-o-si-tis) 111 + mys, muscle, + itis, inflammation]. A group of common nonspecific illnesses characterized by pain, tenderness, and stiffness of joints, capsules, and adjacent structures. Focal "trigger points" may be identified Systemic symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, and depression may be present. SYN. fibromyalgia.

fibromyotomy (fi-bro-mi-ot-o-me) [ + + tome, incision]. Opening of a fibroid tumor.

fibroneuroma (fi-bro-nu-ro-ma) [ + Gr. neuron, nerve, + oma, tumor. A mixed neuroma and fibroma. SYN: neurofibroma

fibro-osteoma (fi-bro-os-te-o-ma) [ + Gr. osteon, bone, + oma, tumor]. Tumor containing bony and fibrous elements. SYN: osteofibroma.

fibroplasia (fi-bro-pla-se-a) [ + Gr. plasis, a molding]. The development of fibrous tissue, as in wound healing.

fibroplastic(fi-bro-plas-tik)[ + Gr. plassein, to form]. Giving formation to fibrous tissue.

fibrosarcomia (fi-bro-sar-ko-ma) [L. fibra, fiber, + Gr. sarkos, flesh, + oma tumor]. A spindle-celled sarcoma containing much connective tissue.

fibrose (fi-bros). To form or produce fibrous tissue.
fibroserous (fi-bro-se-rus) [- + serosus, serous]. Containing fibrous and serosal elements. The pericardium is such a tissue.

fibrosis (fi-bro-sis) [ + Gr. osis, condition]. Abnormal formation of fibrous tissue.

fibrotic (f-i-brot-ik). Marked by or pert. to fibrosis.

fibrous (fibrus) [L. fibra, fiber]. Composed of or containing fibers.

fibula (fib-u-la) [L., pin]. [NA] The outer and smaller bone of the leg from the ankle to the knee, articulating above with the tibia and below with the tibia and talus. One of the longest and thinnest bones of the body .

fibular. Pert. to the fibula.

foramen (for-a-men) [L.]. (pl. foramina) [NA] A passage or opening., an orifice, a communication between two cavities of an organ, or a hole in a bone for passage of vessels or nerves.
f., intervertebral. Opening between adjacent articulated vertebrae for passage of nerves to and from spinal cord.
f., sacral, posterior. One of the openings on the posterior aspect of the sacrum through which pass the posterior primary branches of the sacral nerve.
f., sciatic, greater. Opening bounded by the hip bone, sacrum, and the sacrotuberous ligament.
f., sciatic, lesser. Opening bounded by the hip bone, sacrum, and sacrospinous ligament.
f., spinous. Opening in the spine of the sphenoid bone through which passes the middle meningeal artery.
f., transverse. Opening in the transverse process of a cervical vertebra.
f., vertebral. The large opening between ' the neural arch and the body of the vertebra
f, Weitbrecht's. Opening in the articular capsule of the shoulder joint.

fracture [L. fractura, break]. 1. A sudden breaking of a bone. 2. A broken bone.
CAUSES: In certain diseases and conditions such as osteomalacia, syphilis, and osteomyelitis, bones break spontaneously without trauma. Direct violence: The bone is broken directly at the spot where the force was applied, as in fracture of the tibia by being run over. Indirect violence: The bone is fractured by a force applied at a distance from the site of fracture and transmitted to the fractured bone, as fracture of the clavicle by falling on the outstretched hand. Muscular contraction: The bone is broken by a sudden violent contraction of the muscles.
SIGNS: Loss of power of movement; pain with acute tenderness over the site of fracture; swelling and bruising; deformity and possible shortening; unnatural mobility; crepitus or grating that is heard when the ends of the bone rub together. Do not try to obtain these last two signs. Use roentgenography to find the type of fracture and the exact position of the bone fragments. F.A.: In simple fractures, the limb or part must he kept immovable by means of splints. If proper wooden, plastic, or metal splints are unavailable, they may be improvised by using magazines or folded newspapers. The clothing should not be removed unless there is dangerous hemorrhage. If it is necessary to remove clothing, do so by cutting the cloth away so as to disturb the area as little as possible. If it is an upper extremity, it should he supported in a sling, and the patient may then walk. If a lower limb is injured, the patient should remain supine and make no attempt to walk.
TREAT: The physician will reduce the fracture, that is, place the fragments in proper position. Keep the bone in position by means of a cast until union has taken place. Then restore the limb to complete function by physical therapy and exercise. In compound fractures, any bleeding must be arrested before treating the fracture. Open reduction may be required. The wound is then washed and cleaned with sterile saline. If the area is grossly contaminated, mild soap solution may be used provided it is thoroughly washed away by using generous amounts of sterile saline. When the wound is quite clean, a sterile dressing is secured by a bandage. A cast is then applied as in simple fractures. A weak electric current applied to the fractured bones has been found to promote healing. RS: buttonhole fracture; cerclage; extension; greenstick fracture; malunion; splint.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Evaluate the patient for pain and point tenderness, nerve and vascular impairment distal to the fracture site, swelling, crepitus, discoloration and open wounds near the fracture site. Immobilize the fracture by splinting the site and the joints above and below the site. Cover an open fracture with a sterile or clean dressing. Elevate the injured extremity to minimize edema. Control bleeding with direct pressure, Monitor the patient's overall condition for shock and other complicating factors. Assessment of vascular and neurologic status of limb distal to fracture remains important following immobilization therapy with traction, casting, or fixation device. Also evaluate patients for infection, fat embolism, and delayed union or non-union.

function (funk-shun) [L. functio, performance]. 1. The action performed by any structure. In a living organism this may pertain to a cell or a part of a cell, tissue, organ, or system of organs. 2. The act of carrying on or performing a special activity. Normal function is the normal action of an organ. Abnormal activity or the failure of an organ to perform its activity is the basis of disease or disease processes. Structural changes in an organ constitute pathological changes and are common causes of malfunctioning, although an organ may act abnormally in the absence of observable structural changes.

fuse (fuz) [L. fusus, poured]. To unite or blend together as the coherence of adjacent body structures.

fusimotor (fu-si-mo-tor). Concerning the motor innervation of the intrafusal muscle fibers arising from the gamma efferent neurons of the anterior gray matter of the spinal cord.

fusion (fu-shun) [L. fusio] 1. Meeting and joining together through liquefaction by heat. The process of fusing or uniting.