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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.5

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica

I - K

imaging. Production of a picture, image, or shadow that represents the object being investigated. In diagnostic medicine the classic technique for imaging is x-ray. Techniques that involve the use of computer, generated images produced by x-ray, ultrsound, magnetic resonance, or infrared are available.

imbalance [L. in-, not, + bilanx, two scales]. Out of balance. Without equality in power between opposing forces. i., autonomic. Imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, esp. as pertains to vasomotor reactions. i., sympathetic. Increased excitability - the vagus nerve. SYN: vagotonia. i., vasomotor. Excessive vasoconstriction or vasodilation resulting from impulses to blood vessels.

inflammation [L. infdammare, to flame within]. Tissue reaction to injury. The succession of changes that occur in living tissue when it is injured. The inflamed area undergoes continuous change as the body repair processes start to heal and replace injured tissue. Inflammation is a conservative process modified by whatever produces the reaction, but it should not be confused with infection; the two are relatively different conditions, although one may arise from the other. SEE: infection.
SYM: Pain (dolor), heat (calor), redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), and impaired or disordered function. Also headache, loss of appetite, and a general feeling of discomfort.
Pathological Changes: Vascular dilatation within 30 minutes of the injury and greatly increased blood flow. These changes may last for hours with exudation of fluid from blood vessels into tissues with concomitant swelling, migration of leukocytes into the tissues, and gelation of fibrinogen in inter cellular spaces. Depending upon the severity of the injury, some red blood cells will escape into the tissue. If the injury is not too severe, these processes reach their maximum in six to eight hours, after which reparative processes begin to take place. Blood vessels return to normal size and normal blood flow is reestablished. Leukocytes degenerate or reenter circulation, cellular disintegration or proliferation occurs, in which injured cells are replaced, and swelling disappears with resorption of tissue fluid and digestion of fibrin. The lymphatic system plays an active and important part in the healing of inflamed tissues, and in response to immunologic reactions. Also important in these same types of responses are plasma cells and eosinophils.

intervertebral [ + vertebra, joint]. Situated between two adjacent vertebrae,

intervertabral disk. Broad and flattened disc of fibrocartilage between the bodies of vertebrae. SEE: herniated disk.

J

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Joint [L. junctio, a joining]. An articulation. The point of juncture between two bones. A joint is usually formed of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage. It is classified as being immovable (synarthrosis), slightly movable (amphiarthrosis), and freely movable (diarthrosis). Synarthrosis is a joint in which the two bones are separated only by an intervening membrane, as the cranial sutures.
Amphiarthrosis is a joint having a fibrocartilaginous disk between the bony surfaces (symphysis), such as the symphysis pubis, or a joint with a ligament uniting the two bones (syndesmosis), such as the tibiofibular articulation.
Diarthrosis is a joint in which the adjoining bone ends are covered with a thin cartilaginous sheet and joined by ligament lined by a synovial membrane, which secretes a lubricant.
Joints are grouped according to motion: ball and socket (enarthrosis); hinge (gingly-muis); condyloid, pivot (trochoid); gliding arthrodia); and saddle joint.
Joints can move in four ways: gliding, in which one bony surface glides on another without angular or rotatory movement; angular, occurring only between long bones, increasing or decreasing the angle between the bones; circumduction, occurring in jonts composed of the head of a bone and an articular cavity, the long bone describing a series of circles, the whole forming a cone; and rotation, in which a bone moves about a central axis without moving from this axis. Angular movement, if it occurs forward or backward, is called flexion or extension respectively; away from the body, abduction; and toward the median plane of the body, adduction.
Joints, because of their location and constant use, are prone to stress, injuries, and inflammation. The main diseases affecting the joints are rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout. Injuries are contusions, sprains, dislocations, and penetrating wounds.
j., amphidiarthrodial. Joint that is both ginglymoid and arthrodial.
j., arthrodial. Diarthrosis permitting a gliding motion. SYN: j., gliding. j.arthrosis; j., multiaxial; j., polyaxial.
j., biaxial. Joint possessing two chief movement axes at right angles to each other.
j., bilocular. Joint separated into two sections by interarticular cartilage.
j., bleeders'. Joint hemorrhage in hemophiliacs.
j., Brodie's. Arthrodial neuralgia due to hysteria.
j., Budin's. Congenital cartilaginous band between squamous and condylar parts of the occipital bone.
j., cartilaginous. Joint in which there is cartilage connecting the bones.
j., Charcot's. A disease in tabes dorsalis or syringomyelia. Joint enlargement owing to wasting away of muscles below the joint.
j., Chopart "s. Union of remainder of tarsal bones with oscalcis and astragalus.
j., Cochlear. Hinge joint permitting lateral motion. SYN: j., spiral.
j., compound. Joint made up of several bones.
j., Condyloid. Joint permitting all forms angular movements except axial rotation.
j 's, craniomandibular. The encapsulated, double, synovial joints between the heads of the mandible and the temporal bones of the cranium. SYN: j.'s, temporo: mandibular.
j., diarthrodial. Joint characterized by presence of a cavity within the capsule separating the bony elements, thus permitting considerable freedom of movement.
j., dry. Arthritis of chronic villous type.
j., ellipsoid. Joint having two axes of motionm through the same bone.
j., enarthrodial. J., ball-and-socket. SYN: j., multiaxial.
j., false. False joint formation subsequent to a fracture.
j.'s, fibrous. Joints connected by fibrous tissue.
j., flail. Joint that is extremely relaxed, the distal portion of the limb being almost bevond the control of the will.
j., ginglymoid. A synovial joint having only forward and backward motion, as a hinge. SYN: ginglymus; j., hinge.
j., gliding. Diarthrosis permitting a gliding motion. SYN: j., arthrodial.
j., hemophilic. J., bleeders'
j., hinge. Joint having only a forward and backward motion, as a hinge. SYN: j., ginglymoid.
j., hip. A stable ball-and-socket type of joint in which the head of the femur fits into the acetabulum of the hip bone.
j., immovable. Joint in which a cavity is lacking between the bones. SYN: synarthrosis.
j.'s, intercarpal. Articulations the carpal bones form in relation to one another.
j., irritable. Inflamed spasmodic condition of joint of unknown cause.
j., knee. Joint between the femur, patella, and tibia.
j., midcarpal. Joint separating the navicular, Lunate, and triangular bones from the distal row of carpal bones.
j., mixed. Joint with surfaces joined by fibrocartilaginous disks.
j., movable. Slightly movable or freely movable joint, amphiarthrosis and diarthrosis, respectively,
j., multiaxial.
j., ball-and-socket. SYN: j., enarthrodial;
j., polyaxial.
j., pivot. Joint that permits rotation of a bone, the joint being formed by a pivot like process that turns within a ring, or by a ring like structure.
j., plane. Synovial joint between bone surfaces. Only gliding movements are possible.
j., polyaxial. J., ball-and-socket. SYN: j., enarthrodial; j., polyaxial. j., receptive. J., saddle.
j., rotary. J., pivot. SYN: j., trochoid.
j., saddle. Joint in which the opposing surfaces are reciprocally concavoconvex. SYN: j., receptive.
j., simple. Joint composed of two bones.
j., spheroid. Multiaxial joint with spheroid surfaces.
j., spiral. J., cochlear.
j., sternoclavicular. The joint space between the sternum and the medial extremity of the clavicle.
j.'s, subtalar. The three articular surfaces on the inferior surface of the talus.
j., synarthrodial.
j., immovable.
j., synovial. Joint separated by space containing synovial fluid.
j.'s, tarsometatarsal. Joint made up of three arthrodial joints, the bones of which articulate with the bases of the metatarsal bones.
j.'s, temporomandibular. J.'s, craniomandibular, q.v.
j., trochoid.
j., pivot. SYN: j., rotary.
j., uniaxial. Joint moving on a single axis.
j., unilocular. Joint with a single cavity.

joint approximation. A rehabilitation technique used to inhibit spastic musculature. Also: joint compression.

joint capsule. The saclike structure that encloses the ends of bones in a diarthrodial joint. Consists of an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial layer and contains synovial fluid.

joint cavity. The articular cavity or space enclosed by the synovial membrane and articular cartilages. It contains synovial fluid.

joint mice. Free bits of cartilage or bone present in the joint space, esp. the knee joint. These are usually the result of previous trauma. They may or may not be symptomatic. SYN: loose bodies.

K

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Kilian-s pelvis (kil e-anz) [herman F Killian, Ger. Gynecologist, 1800-1863] Pelvis affected with osteomalacia SYN; pelvis spinosa kineplastic (kin-I-plas-tik) [Gr. kinein, to move, + plastikos, formed]. Pert. to kineplasty.

kineplasty. A form of amputation enabling the muscles of the stump to impart motion to an artificial limb. SEE: Boston arm; cineplastics.

kinesalgia ( kin-e-sal-je-a) [Gr. kinesis, movement, + algos, pain]. Pain associated with muscular movement. SYN: kinesialgia.

kinesiatrics (ki-ne-se-at-riks) [ + iatrikos, curative]. Treatment involving active and passive movements. SYN: kinesitherapy.

kinesics (ki-ne-siks). Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication. SEE: body language.

kinesimeter (kin-e-sim-e-ter) [ + metron, measure]. An apparatus for determining the extent of movement of a part.

kinesiodic (ki-ne-se-od-ik) [- hodos, path]. Pert. to paths through which motor impulses pass.

kinesiology (ki-ne-e-olo-je) [ + logos, word, reason]. The study of muscle and body movement. SEE: biomechanics. kinesiotherapy (ki-ne-e-o-ther--peia) + therapeia, treatment]. Therapeutic exercises. SYN: kinesitherapy; kinetotherapy.

kinesis (kin-e-is) [Gr.]. Motion. kinesitherapy [ + therapeia, ] Treatment by movements or exercises SYN: kinesiotherapy; kinetotherapy. SEE; physical therapy.

kinesodic(kin--sod-k)[ + hodos path] Rel. to the conveyance of motor impulses.

kinesthesia (kin-s-the-e-a) [+ thesis, sensation]. Ability to perceive extent direction, or weight of movement.

kinesthesiometer (kin-esthe-ze-om-eter [ + metron, measure]. Instrument for testing ability to determine the position of the muscles. kinesthetic. Rel. to kinesthesia.

kinetic (ki-net-ik)[Gr. kinesis, motion].: pert to or consisting of motion.

kinetics. The forces acting on the body during movement and the interactions of sequence of motion with respect to time and forces present.

kinetotherapy (ki-neto-hera-pi[ therapeia, treatment]. Treatment that employs active and passive movements. S kinesiotherapy ktnesitherapy.

kite apparatus. Apparatus for reeducation of weak muscles and for assistance in overcoming contractures of forearm, wrist, and fingers

Klippels disease (kli-pelz). [Maurice Klippel, Fr. neurologist, 1858-1942] Weakness or pseudoparalysis due to generalized arthritis..

kneading (ned-ng) [AS. cnedan]. A form of massage consisting of grasping, wringing, lifting, rolling, or pressing part of a muscle or group of muscles. SYN: petrissage.

knee [AS. cneo]. 1. The anterior aspect of the leg at the articulation of the femur and tibia and the articulation itself, covered anteriorly with the patella or kneecap. Formed by the femur, tibia, and patella. 2. Any structure shaped like a semiflexed knee. SYN: geniculum. RS: geniculate; geniculum; "genu-" words; "gon-" words; patella; popliteal.
k., Brodie"s. A chronic fungoid synovitis of the knee joint in which the affected parts become soft and pulpy.
k., dislocation of. Displacement of the knee. Dislocations in themselves are unusual. The so-called dislocation of the knee is usually due to various injuries of the joint and of the complicating structures of the knee, such as the tearing of the crushed tendons or ligaments, or the slipping of cartilages. Dislocations should be treated either by a straight splint, as in a fracture of the kneecap, or by two splints, one on either side of the knee, as in a fracture involving the knee joint. The patient should be transported to a hospital as quickly as possible.
k., game. A lay term for internal derangement of the knee joint. SYM: Pain or instability, locking, and weakness. PATH: Usually a torn internal cartilage, a fracture of the tibial spine, or an injury to the collateral or cruciate ligaments. F.A.: Immobilize with a posterior splint. Surgical exploratory arthrotomy or arthroscopy may be necessary.
k., housemaid's. Inflamed condition of the bursa anterior to the patella with accumulation of fluid therein. May be seen in those who have to kneel frequently or continually while working.
k., knock-. Condition in which the knees come together while the ankles are far apart, caused by an outward distortion of the leg that throws the knee inside the normal line. SYN: genu valgum. SEE: bowleg; genu varum.
k., locked Condition in which the leg cannot be extended. Usually due to displacement of semilunar cartilage. kneecap. The patella.

kinesodickin'e-sod'ik)[" + hodos path] Rel. to the conveyance of motor impulses.

kinesthesia (kin"es-the'ze-a) [" + thesis, sensation]. Ability to perceive extent direction, or weight of movement.

kinesthesiometer (kin"es-the-ze-om'e-ter) [" + metron, measure]. Instrument for testing ability to determine the position of the muscles.

kinesthetic. Rel. to kinesthesia.

kinetic (ki-net'ik) [Gr. kinesis, motion].: pert to or consisting of motion.
kinetics. The forces acting on the body during movement and the interactions of sequence of motion with respect to time and forces present.

kinetotherapy (ki-net"o-ther'a-pi) [" therapeia, treatment]. Treatment that employs active and passive movements. S kinesiotherapy kinesitherapy.

kite apparatus. Apparatus for reeducation of weak muscles and for assistance in overcoming contractures of forearm, wrist, and fingers

Klippels disease (kli-pelz). [Maurice Klippel, Fr. neurologist, 1858-1942] Weakness or pseudoparalysis due to generalized arthritis..

kneading (ned-ing [AS. cnedan]. A form of massage consisting of grasping, wringing, lifting, rolling, or pressing part of a muscle or group of muscles. SYN: petrissage.

Knee. [AS. cneo]. 1. The anterior aspect of the leg at the articulation of the femur and tibia and the articulation itself, covered anteriorly with the patella or kneecap. Formed by the femur, tibia, and patella. 2. Any structure shaped like a semiflexed knee. SYN: geniculum. RS: geniculate; geniculum; "genu-" words; "gon-" words; patella; popliteal.
k., Brodie-s A chronic fungoid synovitis of the knee joint in which the affected parts become soft and pulpy.
k., dislocation of. Displacement of the knee. Dislocations in themselves are unusual. The so-called dislocation of the knee is usually due to various injuries of the joint and of the complicating structures of the knee, such as the tearing of the crushed tendons or ligaments, or the slipping of cartilages. Dislocations should be treated either by a straight splint, as in a fracture of the kneecap, or by two splints, one on either side of the knee, as in a fracture involving the knee joint. The patient should be transported to a hospital as quickly as possible.
. k.game. A lay term for internal derangement of the knee joint. SYM: Pain or instability, locking, and weakness. PATH: Usually a torn internal cartilage, a fracture of the tibial spine, or an injury to the collateral or cruciate ligaments. F.A.: Immobilize with a posterior splint. Surgical exploratory arthrotomy or arthroscopy may be necessary.
k., housemaid's. Inflamed condition of the bursa anterior to the patella with accumulation of fluid therein. May be seen in those who have to kneel frequently or continually while working.
k., knock-. Condition in which the knees come together while the ankles are far apart, caused by an outward distortion of the leg that throws the knee inside the normal line. SYN: genu valgum. SEE: bowleg; genu varum.
k., locked Condition in which the leg cannot be extended. Usually due to displacement of semilunar cartilage.

kneecap. The patella.

Kohnstamm's phenomenon (kon'stamz) [Oscar Kohnstamm, Ger. physician, 1871 1917] Persistent and spontaneous contraction of a muscle after a strong contraction against resiwall while standing with the frontal plane perpendicular the wall. When this is stopped and you have moved away from the wall, the arm will involuntarily adduct and be elevated. SYN aftermovement.<>

koilorrhachic (koy-o-rak-k) [" + rhachis, spine]. Pert. to a spinal column that has an excessive anterior curve.

koilosternia koy'lo-ster'ne-a [" + G sternon, sternum]. Condition in which the chest has a funnel-like depression in the middle of the thoracic wall.

kypho- [Gr. kyphos, a hump]. Prefix indicating humped.

kyphorachitis (ki"fo-rak-i'tis) [" + rhachis, spine, + itis, inflammation]. Rachitic deformity involving the thorax and spinal column. Results in development of anteroposterior hump.

kyphos (ki'fos) (Gr., hump]. Convex prominence of the spine.

kyphoscoliosis (ki"fo-sko"le-o'sis) [" skoliosis, curvation]. Lateral curvature of the spine accompanying anteroposterior hump.

kyphosis (ki-fo-is) [Gr., humpback]. Exaggeration or angulation of normal posterior curve of spine. Gives rise to condition commonly known as humpback, hunchback, Pott's curvature. Also refers to excessive curvature of the spine with convexity backward. The former may be due to congenital anomaly, disease (tuberculosis, syphilis) malignancy, or compression fracture. The latter may result from faulty posture, osteo or rheumatoid arthritis, rickets, or other conditions. SYN: humpback; spinal curvature.

kyphotic (ki-fot-ik) Affected by or pert. to kyphosis.

kyrtorrhachic (kir-o-rak-ik[Grk.kto-curved+ rhachis, spine] Spinal curvature with posterior concavity.