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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.9

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica

O.

occupational to osteocyte      osteodentin to ostitis

Occupational therapist. One who evaluates the self-care, work, play, and leisure time task performance skills of well and disabled clients of all ages; plans and implements programs, social and interpersonal activities designed to restore, develop, and maintain the client's ability to accomplish satisfactorily those daily tasks required of his or her specific age and necessary to his or her particular role adjustment.

occupational therapy., Therapeutic use of work, self-care, and play activities to increase independent function, enhance development, and prevent disability; may include adaptation of task or environment to achieve maximum independence and to enhance quality of life.

omo- [Gr. omos, shoulder]. Combining form pert. to the shoulder.

omoclavicular (omo-kli-viku-lar). Concerning the shoulder and clavicle.

omodynia (o-mo-dine-a) [Gr. omos, shoulder, + odyne, pain]. Pain of the shoulder.

omohyold (0-mo-hioyd). 1. Concerning the scapula and the hyoid bone. 2. Muscle attached to the hyoid bone and the scapula.

organ (organ) [Gr. organon; L. organum]. A part of the body having a special function. Many organs are in pairs. In such pairs, one organ may be extirpated and the remaining one can perform all necessary functions peculiar to it. From one-third to two-fifths of some organs may be removed without loss of function necessary to support life.

orthosis [Gr. straightening]. 1. Straightening or correction of a deformity or disability. 2. Device used to correct malalignment of joints, esp. those involved in locomotion. The device is either added to the outside of the shoe or placed inside it. SYN: orthotic.

orthostatic (ortho-statik) [Gr. orthos, straight, + statikos, causing to stand]. Concerning an erect position. SYN: orthotic.

orthostatic hypotension. Postural hypotension,

orthostatism (orth-statizm) [" + -ismos, condition]. An upright standing position of the body.

Orthotast (ortho-tast)[" + tasseintoarrange]. Instrument for straightening bone curvatures.

orthotic [Gr. orthosis, straightening]. 1. Rel. to orthosis. 2. Orthostatic.

orthotics (or-thotiks). 1. The science pert. to mechanical appliances for orthopedic use. 2. The use of orthopedic appliances.

orthotist (ortho-tist) [Gr. orthosis, stridghtening]. One skilled in orthosis.

os (os) L. (pl. ora) [NAJ Mouth, opening.
o. calcis. [NA] Heel bone. SYN: calcaneus .
o. coxae. [NA] Hip bone.
o. hamatum. [NA] Hooked bone in second row of carpus (wrist). SYN: unciform bone. o.ilii. [NA] The ilium.
o. innominatum. Hip bone.
o. magnum, A carpal bone, the third in the second distal row. SYN: capitatum.
o. orbiculare, Tiny bone in the ear that becomes attached to the incus, forming the lenticular process.
o. peroneum, Bone occasionally found in the tendqn of peroneus longus muscle.
o. planum. 1. Flat bone; any bone that has a slight thickness only. 2. Orbital plate of ethmoid bone.
o. pubis. [NA] The pubic bone; anteroinferior part of the hip bone. In the adult, it unites the innominate bone with the ilium and ischium to form the pelvis. It is irregular in shape, divided into a horizontal, ascending, and descending ramus. The outer extremity constitutes approx. one-fifth of the acetabulum. The inner ramus forms the symphysis pubis.
o. scaphoideum. [NA] Scaphoid,
o. temporale. Temporal bone,
o. trigonum. [NA] Bone of foot that develops from an extra center of ossification along posterior surface of the talus.
o. unguis. Lacrimal bone.
o. veselianum. Bone that develops from ossification of the posterior tubercle of the fifth metatarsal.

OSHA. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A U.S. governmental regulatory agency that is concerned with the health and safety of workers.

ostalgia (os-talje-a) [Gr. osteon, bone, + algos, pain]. Pain in a bone. SYN: osteodynia.

osteal (oste-al). Pert. to bone.

ostealgia (oste-alje-a) [" + algos, pain]. Bone pain.

osteanagenesis (oste-an-a-jene-sis) [+ ana, on, + L. genesis, generation, birth]. Regeneration or re-formation of bone.

ostearthrotomy (oste-ar-throto-me) [ + arthron, joint, + tome, incision]. Surgical excision of the articular end of a bone. SYN: osteoarthrotomy.

ostectorny, osteectorny (os-tekto-me, -te-ekto-me) [" + ektome, excision]. Surgical excision of a bone or a portion of one.

osteectopia (oste-ek-tope-a) [" + ektopos, out of place). Displacement of a bone.

osteitis (os-te-itis) [" + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of a bone.
o., condensing. Osteitis in which the marrow cavity becomes filled with osseous tissue. Bone becomes denser and heavier. SYN: a., sclerosing.
o., deformans. Skeletal disease of older people. Chronic form of osteitis with thickening and hypertrophy of the long bones and deformity of the flat bones. SYN: Paget's disease.
SYM: Slow and insidious in onset. Pain in lower limbs, esp. the tibia. Frequent fractures. Waddling gait. Skull becomes enlarged, so that the face appears small and triangular in shape with the head pushed forward. Stature shortens. ETIOL: Unknown. TREAT: Asymptomatic cases should not be treated. Aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are given for pain. There is no specific curative therapy, but male and female sex hormones, fluoride, and x-ray therapy have been used to control the pain. Calcitonin and mithramycin have been used to control the resorption of bone and thus are of assistance in alleviating bone pain. Etidronate sodium has reduced bone resorption in most patients and produced clinical improvement in some.
o., fibrosa cystica generalistata. A condition resulting from overactivity of the parathyroid glands with resulting disturbances in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Characterized by decalcification and softening of bone, nephrolithiasis, and elevation of blood calcium and lowering of blood phosphorus. Cysts form and tumors may develop. SYN: hyperparathyroidism.
o., fragilhans. Osteogenesis imperfecta,
o., gummatous. Chronic osteitis associated with syphilis and characterized by the formation of gummas.
o., rarefying. form of osteitis in which inorganic matter is lessened and bone tissue becomes latticelike in structure. SYN: osteoporosis.
o., sclerosing. 0., condensing.

ostemia (os-teme-a) [" + haima, blood]. Congestion of blood in a bone. ostempyesis (ostem-pi-esis) [" + empyesis, suppuration]. Purulent inflammation within a bone.

osteo- [Gr. osteon, bone]. Combining form indicating relationship to a bone.

osteoanagenesis (oste-o-ana-jene-sis) [ + Gr. ana, again, + L. genesis, generation, birth]. Regeneration of bone.

osteoanesthesia (osti-o-anes-thez-a) [ + an-, not, + aisthesis, sensation]. The condition of the bone being insensitive, esp. to stimuli that would normally produce pain.

osteoaneurysm (osti-o-anu-rizm) [" + aneurysma, a widening]. Aneurysm, or dilatation of a blood vessel filled with clotted blood, occurring within a bone.

osteoarthritis (oste-o-ar-thritis) [" + arthron, joint, + itis, inflammation]. A chronic disease involving the joints, esp. those bearing weight. Characterized by destruction of articular cartilage, overgrowth of bone with lipping and spur formation, and impaired function. SYN: arthritis, degenerative.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Plan with patient to provide rest following activity and to pace activities to prevent excessive fatigue. Support patient in coping with limitations of mobility. Teach exercise and treatment regimens specific to affected joints, including application of moist heat, range-of-motion exercises to limit of pain, maintenance of correct body weight and posture, and use of supportive appliances and devices and home safetv measures as ordered.

osteoarthropathy (osti-o-ar-thropa-the) [+ pathos, disease, suffering]. Any disease involving the joints and bones, accompanied by severe pain.
o., hypertrophic pulmonary. An affliction characterized by enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes and a thickening of their distal ends, accompanied by a peculiar longitudinal curving of nails. Wrist and interphalangeal joints may become enlarged as well as distal ends of tibia and fibula and the jaw. ETIOL: Found in pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and congenital heart disease. osteoarthrosis (osti-o-ar-throsis) [' + 11 + osis, condition]. Osteoarthritis.

osteoarthrotomy (osti-o-ar-throto-me) [ + tome, incision]. Excision of joint end of a bone. SYN: ostearthrotomy.

osteoblast (osti-o-blast) [Gr. osteon, bone, + blastos, germ]. A cell of mesodermal origin that is concerned with the formation of bone.

osteoblastoma (osti-o-blas-toma) [" + " + oma, tumor]. A large benign tumor of osteoblasts in a patchy osteoid matrix. It occurs mostly in the vertebral column of young people.

osteocarcinoma (os"te-o-kar-sin-o'ma) [" + karkinos, cancer, + oma, tumor]. 1. Combined osteoma and carcinoma. 2. Carcinoma of a bone.

osteocartilaginous
(os"te-o-kar"ti-laj'inus). Concerning bone and cartilage.

osteocele (os'te-o-sel) [" + kele, tumor, swelling]. 1. A testicular or scrotal tumor that contains bony tissue. 2. A bone-containing hernia.

osteocephaloma (os"te-o-sefl'a-lo'ma) [" + kephale, head, + oma, tumor]. Encephaloma, a malignant neoplasm of brainlike texture in a bone.

osteochondral (os"te-o-kon'dral). Concerning bone and cartilage.

osteochondritis (os"te-o-kon-dri'tis) [" + chondros, cartilage, + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of bone and cartilage.
o. deformansjuvenilis. Chronic inflammation of the head of the femur in children. Results in atrophy and shortening of the neck of femur with a wide flat head. SYN: Waldenstrom's disease.
o. dissecans. Condition affecting a joint in which a fragment of cartilage and its underlying bone become detached from articular surface. Occurs commonly in the knee joint.

osteochondrodystrophy (os"te-o-kon"drodis'tro-fe) [" + " + dys, bad, + trepheia, to nourish]. A disorder of skeletal growth resulting from bone and cartilage malformation. Produces a form of dwarfism. SYN: Morquio's syndrome.
o., familial. Morquio's syndrome. SEE: mucopolysaccharidosis IV.

osteochondrolysis (os"te-o-kon-droli-sis) [" + " + lysis, dissolution]. Osteochondritis dissecans.

osteochondroma (os"te-o-kon-dro'ma) [" + " + oma, tumor]. Tumor composed of both cartilaginous and bony substance.

osteochondromatosis (os"te-o-kon"dro ma-to'sis) [" + " osis, condition]. A disease in which there are multiple osteochondromata.

osteochondrosarcoma (os"te-o-kon"drosar-koma} [" + " + sarx, flesh, + oma, tumor]. Chondrosarcoma occurring in bone.

osteochondrosis (os"te-o-kon-dro'sis) [" + " + osis, condition]. Degenerative changes in the ossification centers of the epiphyses of bones, particularly during periods of rapid growth in children. The process continues to the stage of avascular and aseptic necrosis and then there is slow healing and repair.
o, deformans tibiae. Degeneration aseptic necrosis of the medial condyle of the tibia.

osteochondrous (os"te-o-kon'drus). Containing bone and cartilage. osteoclasia, osteoclasis (os-te-o-kla'ze -ok'la-sis) [" + klasis, a breaking].
1. Surgical fracture of a bone in order to remedy a deformity.
2. Bony tissue absorption and destruction.

osteoclast (os'te-o-klast) [" + klan, to break].
1. Device for fracturing bones : therapeutic purposes.
2. Giant multinuclear cell formed in bone marrow of growing bones. Found in depressions called (Househip's lacunae) on the surface of the borne. Concerned with absorption and removal of unwanted tissue.

osteoclast activating factor. ABBR: OAF. Factor produced in certain conditions associated with resorption of bone. Periodontal disease and lymphoid proliferative diseases such as multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma are included. Interleukin-1 is :an OAF, as are other substances produced by T lymphocytes.

osteoclastic (os"te-o-klas'tik). Concerning osteoclasts.

osteoclastoma (os"te-o-klas-to'ma) [ + oma, tumor]. Giant cell tumor of bone.

osteoclasty (os'te-o-klas"te). Osteoclasis

Osteocope (os'te-o-kop) [" + kopos, pain Extreme pain in the bones, esp. in syphitic bone disease.

osteocopic (os"te-o-kop'ik). Concerning severe pain in the bone. osteocranium (os"te-o-kra'ne-um) [" kranion, skull]. The portion of the cranium formed of membrane bones in contrast to that formed of cartilage (chondrocranium.

osteocystoma (os"te-o-sis-to'ma) [" kystis, sac, bladder, + oma, tumor]. Cystic tumor of a bone.

osteocyte (os'te-o-sit") [" + kytos, cell; a mesodermal bone-forming cell that has become entrapped within the bone matrix; it lies within a lacuna with processes extending outward through canaliculi, and by its metabolic activity helps to maintain bone as a living tissue.